Goya fusilamiento del 2 de mayo

Goya fusilamiento del 2 de mayo

Dos de mayo painting

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The Second of May 1808, by Goya, also known as The Charge of the Mamelukes (in Spanish: El 2 de mayo de 1808 en Madrid, or La lucha con los mamelucos or La carga de los mamelucos[1]), is a painting by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya. It is a companion to the painting The Third of May 1808 and is set in the Calle de Alcalá near Puerta del Sol, Madrid, during the Dos de Mayo Uprising. It depicts one of the many people’s rebellions against the French occupation of Spain that sparked the Peninsular War.

Goya witnessed first-hand the French occupation of Spain in 1808, when Napoleon used the pretext of reinforcing his army in Portugal to seize the Spanish throne, leaving his brother Joseph in power. Attempts to remove members of the Spanish royal family from Madrid provoked a widespread rebellion. This popular uprising occurred between the second and third of May 1808, when suppressed by forces under Maréchal Joachim Murat.

es el dos de mayo in english

The painting’s content, presentation, and emotional force secure its status as a groundbreaking, archetypal image of the horrors of war. Although it draws on many sources from both high and popular art, The Third of May 1808 marks a clear break from convention. Diverging from the traditions of Christian art and traditional depictions of war, it has no distinct precedent, and is acknowledged as one of the first paintings of the modern era.[4] According to the art historian Kenneth Clark, The Third of May 1808 is «the first great picture which can be called revolutionary in every sense of the word, in style, in subject, and in intention».[5]

Under the guise of reinforcing the Spanish armies, 23,000 French troops entered Spain unopposed in November 1807.[8] Even when Napoleon’s intentions became clear the following February, the occupying forces found little resistance apart from isolated actions in disconnected areas, including Saragossa.[9] Napoleon’s principal commander, Marshal Joachim Murat, believed that Spain would benefit from rulers more progressive and competent than the Bourbons, and Napoleon’s brother Joseph Bonaparte was to be made king.[10] After Napoleon convinced Ferdinand to return Spanish rule to Charles IV, the latter was left with no choice but to abdicate, on March 19, 1808, in favor of Joseph Bonaparte.

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The painting’s content, presentation, and emotional force secure its status as a groundbreaking, archetypal image of the horrors of war. Although it draws on many sources from both high and popular art, The Third of May 1808 marks a clear break from convention. Diverging from the traditions of Christian art and traditional depictions of war, it has no distinct precedent, and is acknowledged as one of the first paintings of the modern era.[4] According to the art historian Kenneth Clark, The Third of May 1808 is «the first great picture which can be called revolutionary in every sense of the word, in style, in subject, and in intention».[5]

Under the guise of reinforcing the Spanish armies, 23,000 French troops entered Spain unopposed in November 1807.[8] Even when Napoleon’s intentions became clear the following February, the occupying forces found little resistance apart from isolated actions in disconnected areas, including Saragossa.[9] Napoleon’s principal commander, Marshal Joachim Murat, believed that Spain would benefit from rulers more progressive and competent than the Bourbons, and Napoleon’s brother Joseph Bonaparte was to be made king.[10] After Napoleon convinced Ferdinand to return Spanish rule to Charles IV, the latter was left with no choice but to abdicate, on March 19, 1808, in favor of Joseph Bonaparte.

the third of may 1808 romanticism

El 2 de mayo de 1808, las tropas francesas deciden sacar a la Familia Real de Madrid, mientras les observa una multitud que protesta ante las puertas de palacio. La muchedumbre es disuelta por un batallón de granaderos, y la noticia origina una violenta reacción del pueblo de Madrid contra los franceses.

Al día siguiente, 3 de mayo, el comandante del ejército francés y gobernador de Madrid, Joaquín Murat, toma medidas para restablecer el orden, castigando de manera sangrienta el levantamiento popular. En Moncloa son fusilados todos aquellos que han sido apresados con las armas en la mano. Ese mismo 3 de mayo, Andrés Torrejón, alcalde de Móstoles, declara la guerra a los franceses.

Después de los sucesos acaecidos el día 2 y a lo largo de todo el mes de mayo, se producen levantamientos provinciales que culminan en la formación de varias juntas. También se suceden en muchas ciudades movimientos populares que no cuajan en la formación de una de ellas.

Mientras tanto, el 6 de mayo, las denominadas abdicaciones de Bayona se suceden ante la presencia de Napoleón Bonaparte. La corona, símbolo de la legitimidad de la monarquía, pasa de las manos de Fernando a las de su padre, Carlos IV, y de las de este a Napoleón, quien a su vez elegirá a su hermano José.

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